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Multicellular fungi have many hyphae (singular: hypha), which are branching filaments. Hyphae have a tubular shape và are split into cell-like compartments by walls that are known as septa. These cells can have more than one nucleus, và nuclei và other organelles can move in between them. (There is some debate over whether multicellular fungi are truly multicellular, because organelles và cytoplasm can move from one cell lớn the other in a process called cytoplasmic streaming. They are commonly known as multicellular, but they are not multicellular in the same way as plants và animals, which have enclosed cells.) A fungus’s network of hyphae is called a mycelium.
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These are hyphae of a Penicillium fungus.
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Fungi are heterotrophs; they cannot make their own food và must obtain nutrients from organic material. Lớn do so, they use their hyphae, which elongate và branch off rapidly, allowing the mycelium of the fungus lớn quickly increase in size. Some fungi hyphae even form root-like threads called rhizomorphs, which help tether the fungus lớn the substrate that it grows on while allowing it lớn quickly obtain more nutrients from other sources. Fungi are opportunists, which means that they can obtain nutrients from a wide variety of sources và thrive in a wide range of environmental conditions. Some fungi obtain nutrients from dead organic matter; these fungi are called saprobes và are decomposers, which break down và get rid of dead organisms. Other fungi parasitize plants và are responsible for plant diseases like Dutch elm disease. However, fungi can also have symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationships with photosynthetic algae or bacteria, và with plant roots. A symbiotic association of a fungus và an animal that photosynthesizes is called a lichen, while a plant root-và-fungus association is called a mycorrhiza.
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Most fungi can reproduce through both sexual và asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction occurs through the release of spores or through mycelial fragmentation, which is when the mycelium separates into multiple pieces that grow separately. In sexual reproduction, separate individuals fuse their hyphae together. The exact life cycle depends on the species, but generally multicellular fungi have a haploid stage (where they have one set of chromosomes), a diploid stage, và a dikaryotic stage where they have two sets of chromosomes but the sets remain separate.
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